Kitchen Electrical Layout Help Needed

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Old 03-25-16, 11:41 AM
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Question Kitchen Electrical Layout Help Needed

Need some help with kitchen circuitry.

I'm updating some of the existing electrical in my kitchen and I want help understanding what should be on its own circuit, etc. I have some electrical experience so i'm going off of rusty knowledge. Here are the things I'm looking to get updated:
-Outlets on countertops/Appliances
-Microwave
-Gas Stove
-Refrigerator
-Dishwasher
-Food Disposal
-Instant Hot

If you had all of these items, how would you wire them all? What would share circuitry? What would have its own? Would you use 15 amp/20 amp for various connections? I am in the USA.

Outlets/Appliances
From what I recall, you need 2-20amp circuits for countertop appliance outlets, and they must be GFI protected. Is this correct? So half the outlets on 1 circuit, and half on the other?

Microwave and Gas Stove
-Can these 2 share 1-20amp circuit? The gas stove is a minimal draw, but I think I remember some saying these should be separate. Can they be together or must they be on their own? Or can 1 of these units share a circuit with something else?

Refrigerator
Can this share with anything or must it be on its own circuit? 15amp or 20amp? Can this be run off the appliance circuit?

Dishwasher
Does the dishwasher need its own circuit or can it share with anything? 15 amp ok? If it can share, what can it share with (Food Disposal or Instant Hot)?

Food Garbage Disposal and Instant Hot Water
My garbage disposal pulls 7 amps (7 amps x 120 volts = 840 watts). Instant Hot is a 1300 watt unit (11amps I think). Can these share a 20amp circuit? Or should they be on separate 15 amp circuits, or share with something else? Or a 12-3 line?

All tips appreciated!
 
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Old 03-25-16, 11:55 AM
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All of the countertop receptacles in the kitchen, and other general receptacles in the kitchen, dining room and pantry, must be on at least (2) 20A GFCI-protected circuits. These are the "small appliance branch circuits". You can have more than two SABC if it makes sense in your layout. The gas stove and fridge should be on these circuits. Lights and any built-in appliances cannot be on these circuits.

The over-the-range microwave or vent hood must be on a dedicated 20A circuit which is installed to a receptacle in the upper cabinet.

I would put the instant heater, dishwasher and disposal each on their own 20A circuit. If you really need to reduce the number of circuits you could combine some of these on to two 20A circuits.

I see you didn't mention lighting -- I would also have a 15A circuit to power all the lighting, including under cabinet lighting if you go that way.
 
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Old 03-25-16, 12:22 PM
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Thanks for the tips, all makes good sense.

Should the gas stove and fridge be on a 20amp, or are these ok on a 15 amp?

With the possible shared 20 amp, I guess I will do the math and figure out which of the 3 pull lesser peak and constant wattage and consider sharing.

With these circuits, must they all be home run's all the way back to the panel? Is it ok to have a line from the panel to a junction box where I then patch to the specific outlet? The reason is because I may want to get all the kitchen electrical run and into the basement into junction boxes and left dead temporarily. I have to clear area to run all the way to the panel so if I can just run to junction boxes and later patch it all to the panel it will make my life easier. Is that ok code wise to have these lines run as dedicated lines, but stop at a junction along the way? I think so, but want to make sure.
 
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Old 03-25-16, 12:38 PM
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All of the kitchen receptacle circuits should be 20A. The gas stove is a bit of a grey area if you put it on a dedicated circuit, but it is very common to put it on the countertop circuit.

You can splice the circuits in accessible junction boxes, such as a basement ceiling or attic area. Another option is to run a new subpanel to somewhere near the kitchen area and pull all of your new circuits from that panel.
 
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Old 03-25-16, 12:54 PM
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Thanks for all of the help!
 
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Old 03-25-16, 11:45 PM
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A few more thoughts came to mind, do the SABC's typically also need AFCI or only GFCI? Or is this mainly a local code variation?

And how about the Refrigerator/Disposal/Dishwasher/Instant Hot? Do those need GFCI and/or AFCI as well?

Trying to figure out how many GFCI outlets to plan for, and if I need to consider AFCI.

So does a kitchen require 20-amp circuits for everything, no matter what it is? For example if the fridge had its own dedicated line, could it be 15-amp, or is 20-amp required for any outlet in a kitchen?

And about the sub-panel, what is required here? A small sub-panel to hold the amount of breakers required, and then what type/size of line do I run from the main panel to the sub-panel?
 

Last edited by RocketManZ; 03-26-16 at 12:16 AM.
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Old 03-26-16, 09:21 AM
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Newer codes require AFCI and more GFCI. The adopted version of the National Electrical Code (NEC NFPA70) is usually standard state wide. You did not share where you are located but you should ask your city/borough permit/code office what standards they require.

If you don't install a panel what you can do is just leave the extra cable coiled in loops until you have access.

How far would the basement junction box be from your panel? If close and you have free spaces for additional breakers I wouldn't add a new panel. Otherwise it depends on if you want to support an electric oven or stove. A 60 amp breaker in your main panel feeding a 6/3 w/g to the new kitchen panel would be the easy choice. Keep in mind for a new panel you need clearance - space the size of a refrigerator.
 
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