Installing an outdoor privacy screen can be easily done in just one day. There are several options, though. You will need to decide if you want a screen that can be set up temporarily, or a permanent screen.
Shade cloth makes a very good privacy screen and is readily available at most home centers and hardware stores. It can be easily attached to a PVC pipe frame. The PVC pipe frame is lowered into metal pipes that have been installed into the ground, then the cloth is clamped or screwed onto the frame.
Lattice makes the best privacy fence. This is a "crisscross" series of wooden lathing or plastic with openings of about 2 inches. Vines can be grown up the lattice, not only making a nice privacy fence, but also a really nice addition to the yard decor.
You will need to install posts in the ground at every 2 to 4 feet, depending on the size of your lattice. It is best to use treated lumber 4x4s. Dig the holes for the posts at least 16 inches deep, and place the poles into them. You can fill in the holes with tamped down gravel or cement. Make sure that they are level. Attach the lattice to the posts with exterior grade screws.