Once you have the results of the soil test, you can add nutrients or soil amendments such as lime, as needed. If you need to raise the pH, use lime. Lime is most effective when it is mixed into the soil, therefore, it is best to apply before planting. For large areas, rototilling is most effective. For small areas or around plants, working the lime into the soil with a spade or cultivator is preferable.
When working around plants, be careful not to dig too deeply or so roughly that you damage plant roots. Depending on the form of lime and the soil conditions, the change in pH may be gradual. It may take several months before a significant change is noted. Soils high in organic matter and clay tend to take larger amounts of lime to change the pH than do sandy soils.
If you need to lower the pH significantly, especially for plants such as rhododendrons, you can use aluminum sulfate. Other commercially available fertilizers will also help lower the pH. In all cases, follow the soil test or manufacturer's recommended rates of application. Again, mixing well into the soil is recommended.
There are numerous choices for providing nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium. If your soil is of adequate fertility, applying compost may be the best method of applying additional nutrients. While compost is relatively low in nutrients compared to commercial fertilizers, it is especially beneficial in improving the condition of the soil. By keeping the soil loose, compost allows plant roots to grow well throughout the soil, allowing them to extract nutrients from a larger area. A loose soil enriched with compost is also an excellent habitat for earthworms and other beneficial soil microorganisms that are essential for releasing nutrients for plant use. The nutrients from compost are also released slowly so there is no concern for "burning" the plant with an over-application.
Manure is also an excellent source of plant nutrients and organic matter. Manure should be composted before applying. Fresh manure may be too strong and can injure plants. Be careful when composting manure. If left in the open, exposed to rain, nutrients may leach out of the manure and the runoff can contaminate waterways. Make sure the manure is stored in a location away from wells and any waterways, and that any runoff is confined or slowly released into a vegetated area. Improperly applied manure also can be a source of pollution. For best results, work composted manure into the soil.
If preparing a bed before planting, compost and manure may be worked into the soil to a depth of 8 to 12 inches. If adding to existing plants, work carefully around plants.
Green manures are another source of organic matter and plant nutrients. Green manures are crops that are grown and then tilled into the soil. As they break down, nitrogen and other plant nutrients become available. Green manures may also provide additional benefits of reducing soil erosion. Green manures such as rye and oats are often planted in the fall after the crops have been harvested. In the spring, these are tilled under before planting.
With all organic sources of nitrogen, whether compost or manure, the nitrogen must be changed to an inorganic form before the plants can use it. Therefore, it is important to have well-drained, aerated soils that provide the favorable habitat for the soil microorganisms responsible for these conversions.
There are numerous sources of commercial fertilizers that supply nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium. The first number on the fertilizer analysis is the percentage of nitrogen, the second number is phosphorus, and the third number is the potassium content. A fertilizer like 10-20-10 has twice as much of each of the nutrients as a 5-10-5. How much of each nutrient you need depends on your soil test results and the plants you are fertilizing. As was mentioned before, nitrogen stimulates vegetative growth while phosphorus stimulates flowering. Too much nitrogen can inhibit flowering and fruit production. For many flowers and vegetables, a fertilizer higher in phosphorus than nitrogen is preferred, such as a 5-10-5. For lawns, nitrogen is usually required in greater amounts, so a fertilizer with a greater amount of nitrogen is beneficial.
Courtesy of the U.S. Department of Agriculture.